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PostPosted: Mon Jul 16, 2018 3:43 pm 
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Joined: Tue May 06, 2014 3:38 pm
Posts: 189
Location: Canvey Island, Essex
The Cranfield & Haden-Carrier Years – October 1979 ~ April 1984

Despite successful completion in June 1979, of my one-year PGCE postgraduate teacher training course, at the University of London, Instiute of Education (now part of University College), in physical sciences (mainly physics, plus some chemistry) & mathematics, for 11~18 year age group secondary education, I was unable to secure a suitable salaried teaching post (preferably a grammar school, sixth form college or further education college) anywhere in the country by the end of August 1979, in time for the start of the new school academic-year in September.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UCL_Insti ... _Education

http://theconversation.com/merger-with- ... tion-22926

https://www.theguardian.com/education/2 ... ate-equity

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ioe

Equally vexing, was my inability to obtain a non-teaching post, having also applied for several of these, when suitable teaching vacancies in physics and/or mathematics, seemed to be few and far between. These included a research assistantship re blast waves associated with hand-held rocket launchers, at RMCS (i.e. Royal Military College of Science); an MOD civil service establishment of quasi-polytechnic status (taught defence related, degree-level courses, ratified by the CNAA – Council for National Academic Awards), with which I was to become better acquainted during 1990~91!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Mil ... of_Science

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defence_A ... ed_Kingdom

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrivenham

Whilst at Chelsea College, I had developed an interest in alternative-energy technology and environmental physics, which I was interested in pursuing further, but had previously found no way to do so. However, during the summer of 1979, I had reason to speak with Robert Manning, one of my former physics-student colleagues at Chelsea College, which radically changed my future and that of my Triumph Toledo as well.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelsea_C ... Technology

He informed me that the normally 1 year M.Sc. in Applied Energy Engineering course (Energy Conservation and the Environment option), in the School of Mechanical Engineering at CIT – Cranfield Institute of Technology, could also be taken as a 2 year course, incorporating a preliminary 1 year M.Sc. qualifying cum conversion course, for those who held an HND/HNC, non-honours degree and/or non-engineering qualification in physics, chemistry or related discipline; of which he had just completed the first year.

https://www.cranfield.ac.uk/

Although by this stage, the final date for applications had already passed, he recommended that I send a letter of application to the Applied Energy Group course director, in the School of Mechanical Engineering, explaining the reasons for my belated application, and simultaneously submit a formal application via the normal channels. Much to my surprise, I was invited for an interview just a few weeks before the course was due to commence in early October 1979 and subsequently offered a place.

In the meantime, I had also learned from the University of London Careers Advisory Service’s fortnightly job vacancies listing, that the Haden-Carrier Group in London were offering sponsorships to students studying for an HND or B.Sc. in Environmental Engineering. I didn’t match their criteria, but having nothing to lose, I contacted the company, explaining that I was already a graduate of B.Sc. Applied Physics including modules in alternative-energy & environmental physics and that I was applying for a two-year M.Sc. course at CIT – Cranfield, that was closely related to Environmental Engineering.

Again to my surprise, I was invited for an interview with the head of the personnel department in central London, which was co-ordinating these sponsorships, whereby students would receive an allowance of £60 per term (i.e. later increased to £120 per term), plus a pro rata salary during college vacations when working with whichever Group company or department one had been assigned.

I didn’t fit the existing profile of Haden-Carrier Group’s sponsored students, being a postgraduate, but their Central Engineering R & D Laboratory, had an existing vacancy which had remained unfilled for at least six months and they wondered whether it might be of interest to me; noting that my Summer 1976 university vacation job, had been in the Mobil Oil Company’s Research & Technical Service Laboratory; some of which involved investigating the viability of blending bitumen with sulphur, as a reduced-cost material for road surfacing.

After a meeting in Wembley, Middlesex (on the fringe of west London), with the R & D Laboratory’s manager a few weeks later, I was taken on as the Group’s first postgraduate sponsored student, with my pro rata salary directly linked to that of graduate trainees, which was higher than that of other sponsored students and was £500 more per annum pro rata, than I would have earned as a newly qualified graduate teacher. I also gained the additional concession of being officially based in central London, but on attachment to the R & D Laboratory, in Wembley, so I was eligible to reclaim a significant proportion of my travelling expenses.

In principle, it would have been possible to drive daily in the Triumph Toledo from Canvey Island, Essex, to and from the R & D Laboratory, in Wembley, Middlesex, but it would have been a long, tiring and harrowing journey during the long peak-traffic periods, either via central London or around the A406 North Circular ring road; recalling that the M25 London orbital motorway had yet to be built. Instead, I commuted by public transport (i.e. bus, train & London underground train), which door to door, took about 2 hours each way; including a 15 minute walk from Hangar Lane underground station, at the junction of the A406 and A4.

In early-October 1979, at the age of 23¾, I commenced two years of study in the School of Mechanical Engineering at CIT – Cranfield, but I was not authorised by my father, to take the Triumph Toledo with me. Unbeknown to me until decades later, he lived in fear of me (an only child) being killed or injured in a motoring accident of some kind; a fate that had befallen the only son of my father’s colleague, shortly after passing his driving test. Hence, for the next year or so, I was obliged to rely upon public transport; taking approximately 4 hours each way, when travelling home for the weekend, by bus (ran at two-hourly intervals), British Rail train, London Underground train, British Rail train and bus.

However, after driving our 1973 VW 1600 Type 2 campervan in France & Switzerland and a hired Datsun E20 campervan in South Africa, Swaziland & Botswana, during our 1980 Easter and Summer touring holidays, my father concluded that I was a capable, careful & responsible driver, so he finally relented and allowed me to take the Triumph Toledo to university, making life and travel much easier and more convenient.

So, in October 1980, at the start of my second year at CIT – Cranfield, I finally took the Triumph Toledo with me. I successfully completed my M.Sc. in mid-September 1981 and was invited to continue my research project for a Ph.D., for which I obtained consent from Haden-Carrier, but sadly circumstances forced me to abandon this research in late-April 1984, after 2½ years. So, contrary to my original expectations, I was using the Triumph Toledo, to travel back and forth between Canvey Island and CIT – Cranfield, for about 3½ years.

During this period, Haden Carrier had announced its intention to close the Group Central Engineering R & D Department, so I had no job to return to. Fortunately for me, I soon found a suitable post, requiring my specialist expertise, at Celcon Blocks Ltd. (part of the Kingsway Group of companies), in Grays, Essex, just 15•7 miles by road from my home on Canvey Island and commenced full-time employment in late-June 1984, at the age of 28½.

CIT – Cranfield Institute of Technology (integral with Wharley End village, a few miles from Cranfield village), accessed by unclassified roads, is on the Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire border, roughly mid-way between Bedford and Milton Keynes. In common, with many establishments, any vehicles which were parked on campus, had to have a parking permit, bearing its registration number, displayed on the windscreen.

Cranfield Parking-Permit Disc

Image

In those days, there was no M25 London orbital motorway, so the quickest and least congested route from Canvey Island to CIT – Cranfield, was cross-country, on the A1301, A130, A414, A1060, A1250, A120, A10, A507 and various unclassified roads, via Chelmsford, Hatfield Heath, Bishop’s Stortford, Puckeridge, Buntingford, Baldock, Stotfold, Ampthill and several small villages, on a variety of roads, several of which were extremely windy, with a succession of several sharp left-hand & right-hand bends, with quite short straight-road sections between.

Mark Tothill, from Padstow, Cornwall who was one of my fellow students in the School of Mechanical Engineering, had a Triumph Dolomite Sprint. He suggested that it might be possible to fit Dolomite Sprint front & rear anti-roll bars to my Toledo. Detailed close-quarter inspection of both the Dolomite Sprint and Toledo, indicated that he was probably correct. He also suggested that decambering the front wheels might also improve road holding when negotiating bends. I implemented both upgrades during the summer of 1982 and winter of 1982/83.

Over the coming years, the Triumph Toledo was to become intimately acquainted with every junction, bend, concealed entrance, pothole and drain cover of that route. The MOT, road tax and insurance, were already paid for, so if one considered just fuel costs, using the car was significantly cheaper than using public transport, even with a 33•3% discount obtained using a student rail card.

On a typical Friday or Sunday evening, after my evening meal, driving to and from home at the weekend, the 80•0 mile journey took almost exactly 2½ hours, but when the traffic was especially light, it took only 2¼ hours. In December 1981, after a week of snow, before the university’s Christmas vacation, it took me 2¾ hours to drive home along this route, driving most of the time on hard-packed snow, so my Driver Advisory Course, with the Essex Police Driving School, during the late-1970s, again proved its worth.

In later years, when enough sections of the M25 London orbital motorway were built, I sometimes travelled via the A1301 (now re-designated as part of the A130 to Chelmsford, since they were joined), A127 – Southend Arterial Road, M25, M10, A1031, A414 and M1, turning off at M1 Junction 14 for the A509, signposted for Newport Pagnell and travelling the remainder of the journey to CIT – Cranfield via other unclassified roads, that took me around the perimeter of CIT’s large airfield, which had been part of the former RAF Cranfield aerodrome, that formed an important part of CIT’s College of Aeronautics’ facilities.

At that time, there was no junction between the incomplete M25 and the M1. This route using the M25, M10 and M1 motorways, was also exactly 80•0 miles, as indicated by my odometer & trip-counter, but typically took 2 hours returning to CIT – Cranfield on a Sunday evening, which was ½ hour shorter than my 80•0 mile cross-country route. Returning home on Friday evenings via the motorway route was usually impractical; commonly involving journey times of more than 2½ hours, because of traffic congestion, even as late as circa 7:00 pm.

Joining the M1 (Junction 7) from the M10 near Hemel Hempstead, was quite challenging, because the down-hill slip-road from the roundabout had two lanes, which served as both an entry & exit slip-road on & off the M1, in addition to being the through-road from the M10 to Hemel Hempstead. Northbound traffic on the M1 was always busy, even on a Sunday evening, so I was obliged to accelerate hard down the slip-road in 3rd gear and change up to 4th gear at something in excess of 50 mph, and then accelerating to almost 70 mph in 4th gear, negotiating lanes of traffic, to swoop like a Valkyrie onto the motorway’s nearside lane, adjusting my speed as necessary by means of the brakes, to fit into a “convenient” gap in the traffic.

I find motorway driving extremely tedious and the Triumph Toledo 1300 is not ideally suited to motorways, having a comfortable cruising speed of 50~60 mph, which is okay, but there is insufficient reserve power to comfortably overtake slow-moving lorries under heavy traffic conditions, especially on hills, which can be as steep as 1-in-25 to 1-in-20 (i.e. 4% to 5%) on some motorway sections. The overall fuel consumption was the same via either route to within measurable tolerances, so I still tended to take the cross-country route, unless circumstances obliged me to do otherwise.

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


Last edited by naskeet on Fri Jul 20, 2018 2:35 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 20, 2018 2:25 pm 
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Joined: Tue May 06, 2014 3:38 pm
Posts: 189
Location: Canvey Island, Essex
Retro-Fitting Tyre Inner-Tubes – Late 1970s

By the late 1970s, it became increasingly apparent from my weekly tyre-pressure checks (something I did habitually with all the family’s in-service vehicles | the 1973 VW Type 2 was jacked-up on axle stands in the garage, during the usual winter lay-up periods, so didn’t always require these regular checks), that one or more of the Toledo’s tyres, were slowly leaking air.

Even when one anticipated an increase in pressure owing to an increase in ambient temperature, I observed reductions in tyre-pressure! The Toledo has very sensitive steering and I found that I could detect an air-pressure difference of as little as 2 psi between the front tyres, by the slight tendency to deviate in the direction of the least-inflated tyre, when I held the steering wheel with my finger-tips.

Testing with soapy water around the Schräder valve & rubber valve-stem, indicated that at least some air was leaking from around the seating of the rubber valve-stem, where it passed through the associated hole in the Cosmic aluminium-alloy wheel. Despite replacement of rubber valve-stems, air-leakage from this source persisted. It was suggested that oxidation of the wheel, both around the rubber valve-stem and the tyre-bead seating area, might have been inhibiting proper sealing.

Hence, although not an ideal solution, I elected to use tyre inner-tubes with the tubeless tyres, that effectively cured the air-leakage problem, which has never since recurred. From then on, inner tubes were used with all of the tyres fitted to the Cosmic aluminium-alloy wheels (Uniroyal Rallye 180 - 175 SR13 | Kelly-Springfield Steelmark - 175 SR13 | Firestone S211 - 185/70 R13) and the Dolomite Sprint aluminium-alloy wheels (Firestone S211 - 185/70 R13) that I later substituted in 1996.

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


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PostPosted: Fri Jul 20, 2018 2:29 pm 
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Joined: Tue May 06, 2014 3:38 pm
Posts: 189
Location: Canvey Island, Essex
Delaminating Tyre Treads! – Mid-1981

As mentioned earlier, the 1974 Triumph Toledo was already fitted with Uniroyal Rallye 180, steel-braced, 175 SR13 radial tyres, when my father bought the car in May 1975.

In May 1981, 6~6½ years after they were fitted, I noticed that portions of tread on both of the front two tyres, were delaminating and detaching from the carcase. At no time since my father bought the car, had the tyres been mistreated and there was considerable tread-depth remaining. These two Uniroyal tyres were immediately replaced on 30th May 1981 at 18,233 miles, with Kelly Springfield Steelmark, steel-braced, 175 SR13 radial tyres. In accordance with recommended practice, the front and rear wheels were swopped around, so that the new Kelly Springfield tyres were at the rear and the older partially-worn Uniroyal tyres at the front.

Within just a few months, the same phenomenon of tread delamination and detachment, was affecting both of the Uniroyal tyres on the front wheels. Hence the three remaining Uniroyal tyres on both front wheels and the spare wheel, were immediately replaced during the summer of 1981 at circa 19,500 ± 500 miles, with Kelly Springfield Steelmark, steel-braced, 175 SR13 radial tyres.

I had always been pleased with the dry & wet road performance of the Uniroyal Rallye 180 tyres (bearing an umbrella symbol and dubbed the “Rain Tyre” by Uniroyal), but they were not the most comfortable tyres on which to drive, especially on sectioned-concrete roads, on which one could feel a distinct thump, as one drove over the joints. I sometimes joked that one would notice a discarded empty matchbox or small tree-twig if one drove over it!

http://www.uniroyal-tyres.com/generator ... ry_en.html

« 1969: The magazine "Auto, Motor und Sport" crowns the company's first rain tyre, the rallye 180, as its overall test winner: "The test team was most impressed by the Uniroyal rallye 180 which performed equally well in all areas." The rallye 180 is also the first Uniroyal tyre to bear the umbrella symbol. »

http://www.uniroyal-pneumatici.it/www/l ... neData.jpg

Image

Uniroyal Rallye 180 Tread Pattern

Image

The Kelly Springfield Steelmark tyres were much more comfortable on which to drive, gave good all-round performance and didn’t suffer any noticeable age-related deterioration during the following six years, by which time the five tyres had collectively covered a total of about 45,000 miles, before I replaced them in July 1987, as they approached a tread depth of just over 2½ mm.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Kelly ... re_Company

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


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PostPosted: Sat Jul 21, 2018 3:29 pm 
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Posts: 189
Location: Canvey Island, Essex
The Case of the Insecure Lockable Fuel-Filler Cap – early-1980s

Sometime during the early 1980s, fears about theft of petrol by siphoning or deliberate contamination (e.g. water, diesel or sugar, etc) of petrol as a stupid prank (an activity which was not unknown amongst my fellow university students!) or malicious act, prompted me to purchase and retro-fit a CBS lockable fuel-filler cap, from one of my local car accessory shops; details of which are as follows:

CBS (automotive & industrial) Ltd., Bone Lane, Newbury, Berkshire.

CBS Locking Petrol Cap CL 20, for the following Triumph cars:

Herald and Estate 1200, 12/50, 13/60,
Vitesse 1600 & 2000, 1300, 1300 & TC | 60-
Toledo, 1500, Dolomite | 71-
2000 series II | 63/64
2000 series III | 66/67

The original factory-fitted fuel-filler cap, featured a multi-filament wire retainer, of modest length, which suspended the cap when it was removed to fill the tank with petrol. Not wishing to sever this wire, I simply unscrewed the wire’s attachment tab from the underside of the cap and pushed the wire as far is it would go into the fuel-filler pipe. The original fuel-filler cap was put in the Toledo’s boot, along with my emergency tool kit and stock of emergency spares.

A few years later when less than four miles from home, I unexpectedly ran the tank dry of petrol and sought to top up the tank, with 5 litres of petrol from my Paddy Hopkirk “Explosafe” petrol can (a steel fuel can completely filled with open-cell, foamed aluminium), which I always carried in the boot.

Forum Index > Accessories/Memorabilia/Toys > "Explosafe" Safety Fuel Cans

http://www.thesamba.com/vw/forum/viewtopic.php?t=652305

When I tried to remove the lockable fuel-filler cap, the key broke in the lock. I initially considered the option of unfastening one or both of the two large wire hose-clips from the large-bore fuel-filler hose inside the boot, which connected the fuel-filler pipe to the fuel tank, that would allow me to temporarily remove the fuel-filler pipe. This would have enabled me to directly top up the tank via the fuel-tanks inlet spigot, from inside the boot. However, the “Explosafe” petrol can had a rigid plastic spout, so I was worried that attempting to this without a funnel, might result in petrol spillage inside the boot, which would pose a major safety hazard.

As an alternative to this, I attempted to wrench off the locked fuel-filler cap with my hands, which surprisingly proved to be successful. Hence, I was able to easily top up the tank with 5 litres of petrol and afterward substituted the original non-lockable fuel-filler cap, that was still stored in the boot. By partially dismantling the CBS lockable fuel-filler cap, I was able to extricate the remaining half of the broken key and had a copy made of the spare key, which I kept at home.

The question still remains as to how best to significantly improve security against petrol theft and/or deliberate contamination!?!

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


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PostPosted: Mon Jul 23, 2018 3:17 pm 
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Location: Canvey Island, Essex
Mystery of the Disappearing Throttle-Return Spring!?! – Early-1980s

One light Sunday evening, on the A1060 road between Chelmsford and Roxwell, whilst returning to Cranfield after the weekend, the engine suddenly raced, as I took my foot off the accelerator pedal and declutched to change gear. The repetition of this each time I de-clutched, was becoming increasingly annoying and I was unwilling to endure the associated inconvenience & hazards for a further 60 miles or so. Fortunately, not much further along this rural road, I was able to pull onto a petrol station forecourt, where I stopped and raised the bonnet to investigate.

Imagine my incredulity when I discovered that the carburettor’s throttle-return spring had completely vanished, with no evidence of why it had suddenly disappeared into thin air. For a few moments, I wondered what to do next! I could not contemplate continuing for another 60 miles without a throttle-return spring and it was extremely unlikely that the petrol station would stock such an item.

Then I remembered that my on-board emergency tool kit included a pair of protective safety goggles, with an adjustable shearing-elastic (aka knicker-elastic) strap, that just happened to incorporate two additional strap-length adjustment components, which I had scrounged from my mother’s haberdashery work basket. I believe they had originally been used as elastic-strap-length adjusters for stocking suspenders or a bra!

I was able to remove this elastic strap & adjusters, which I used to jury-rig a substitute throttle-return spring that was still in fine fettle, when I arrived back at Cranfield later that evening. Not wishing to tempt providence, I visited Cranfield’s on-campus Wharley End Garage the following day, where I was able to buy a generic steel coil spring of a suitable length, which has remained on the car ever since.

However, the experience prompted me to keep an assortment of elastic bands, in my collection of emergency “touring-spares” and general-purpose “get-you-home” repair materials such as soft baling wire, insulating tape, sealant, adhesives and other sundry items.

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


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PostPosted: Mon Jul 23, 2018 3:19 pm 
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Joined: Tue May 06, 2014 3:38 pm
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Location: Canvey Island, Essex
The Toledo Takes to the Water! – Early-1980s

One dark windless Sunday evening, whilst returning to Cranfield after the weekend, on the A1060 road between Chelmsford and Roxwell (possibly the same stretch of road where the throttle-return spring disappeared!), following a long period of heavy rain, I met an on-coming car whose driver repeatedly flashed its headlamp main beams at me.

At the time, I was driving with my headlamp dipped beams (2 x 55W H4 quartz halogen), which I knew to be properly adjusted (having routinely examined the display screen of headlamp-alignment test equipment, at my MOT testing station, when the Toledo had its MOT test), so I was perplexed by this behaviour; having dipped my headlamps in good time as the car approached, to avoid dazzling the driver with my main beam.

Less than a minute later, I suddenly realised why the driver had probably behaved in this strange fashion! On this unlit rural road, with no other traffic in sight (neither behind nor in front of me), I entered at circa 40~45 mph, a long stretch of flood water, across the full width of the road, to which I had been oblivious, despite driving with my headlamp main beams (2 x 60W H4 quartz halogen), whose effective illumination range was quite considerable.

There had been no recognisable visual cues (i.e. lack of surface ripples caused by wind – no wind at all that evening!) or other change in the surface reflection properties, to alert me that there was deep standing water ahead, rather than a still-wet, black tarmac surface. To the best of my knowledge, there was not and still is not, any defined driver-to-driver signalling régime, by which one can clearly warn other motorists of hazards ahead!

As I entered what must have been quite deep flood water, the steering became EXTREMELY light (the car was probably aquaplaning or very close to doing so) and a wall of water, akin to a tsunami, almost instantly surged over the bonnet, over the front windscreen and over the roof, completely obscuring my forward vision. For what seemed an extremely long time (probably circa 10~20 seconds), I was driving blind.

Knowing the road ahead was straight and that there had been no oncoming traffic when I entered the flood water, I was reasonably sure I would remain safe provided I didn’t panic and simply kept steering in a straight line, avoided braking and held my foot on the throttle to maintain forward momentum and avoid flooding the engine with water. I was convinced, that unless I kept the front wheels pointing straight ahead, the car would veer to one side, immediately after any aquaplaning ceased and effective steering restored.

After what seemed like an eternity, I finally emerged from the flood water and my forward vision returned as the tsunami receded, which was an immense relief. I never discovered how deep the flood water had been, but I suspect it was shallower than the bottom of the doors, because no water entered the passenger compartment or the boot. None of the car’s systems were affected and I merely kept the brake pedal lightly depressed for a few hundred yards to thoroughly dry out the brakes.

When I entered the flood water and lost all forward vision, all of my concentration was focussed on maintaining a straight-line path, so I didn’t even attempt fumbling around for the dashboard-mounted, windscreen-wiper & washer switch, to turn on the windscreen wipers. Besides that, I might also have reasoned subconsciously, that the windscreen wipers would have made no noticeable difference under those circumstances.

However, this and other night-time driving experiences in wet weather, soon convinced me that I needed to somehow upgrade the Toledo, with a steering-column-mounted, windscreen-wiper & washer switch; probably originating from a Dolomite. I was already well acquainted with the considerable ergonomic advantages (especially at night!) of a steering-column-mounted, windscreen-wiper & washer switch, because that was what was factory-fitted to our 1973 VW 1600 Type 2 campervan; the first model-year of 1968~79 VW Type 2s to have this.

During winter 1982/83, I finally upgraded the Toledo with a steering-column-mounted, windscreen-wiper & washer switch, originating from a Dolomite 1500/1850 HL, but it proved to be less straight forward than I anticipated, which is explained in a later post.

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


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PostPosted: Mon Jul 23, 2018 3:20 pm 
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Upgrading Windscreen Washers Part 1 – Retro-Fitted Two Supplementary Windscreen Washer-Jets – Autumn 1982

When driving during dirty wet weather (i.e. little or no rain, but dirt-laden water on the road surface), I needed to frequently use the windscreen wipers & washers to clear dirt-laden spray from the windscreen. On those occasions, I had noticed that the windscreen wipers tended to smear the windscreen; probably owing to uneven distribution of water over the windscreen's surface, despite frequent, liberal squirts of water from the two washer jets.

In a bid to overcome this problem, I salvaged two additional Triumph Toledo or Dolomite windscreen-washer jets from a local car breaker's yard. After removing my Toledo's two existing washer-jets from their original factory-fitted location, I positioned the four washer-jets, so that the outboard pair squirted through the outermost ventilation-grille slots and the inboard pair were located symmetrically on either side of the bonnet-lock attachment plate (behind the ventilation grille). Using additional appropriate T-junctions, Y-junctions and flexible plastic hose, these were connected to the existing windscreen-washer pump.

Having four evenly-spaced windscreen-washer jets, giving a wider, more even distribution of water across the windscreen, was certainly an improvement. However, this improved cleaning performance came at the price of an increase in windscreen-washer-fluid consumption rate, which in turn highlighted the relatively small capacity of the two-pint (i.e. 1•136 litres) windscreen-washer reservoir.

This became abundantly clear on one 80 mile journey from home to Cranfield, during particularly dirty wet weather. I had left home with a completely full windscreen-washer reservoir, which had diminished to about half-inch depth by the time I arrived at my destination! I either needed a supplementary windscreen-washer reservoir or a larger-capacity windscreen-washer reservoir or better still, a more efficient washer system; something I was to discover a few years later, when I learned of Swedish SVD wash-wiper blades. Had I needed to travel an additional 10~20 miles under the same conditions, I would probably have needed to top-up the windscreen-washer reservoir during my journey.

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


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PostPosted: Fri Aug 03, 2018 3:15 pm 
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Future Club member hopefully!
Future Club member hopefully!

Joined: Tue May 06, 2014 3:38 pm
Posts: 189
Location: Canvey Island, Essex
Replacing Faulty Speedometers & Speedometer-Drive Cable – January 1982 & September 1983

At some time during late 1981, the Toledo's original factory-fitted AC speedometer's needle-pointer started to flicker, which progressively got worse over the period of a few weeks and finally the speedometer ceased to function at all, just a few miles from home. At first, I could not understand what had caused the problem, until I eventually discovered the a single strand of the speedometer's multi-strand, flexible drive-cable had broken, which I presume was periodically catching on the inside of the cable-shroud.

In January 1982, the unserviceable AC speedometer was replaced with a second-hand Smiths unit of identical appearance, that I salvaged from an early-model Toledo at one of the local car breaker's yards. I also replaced the damaged speedometer cable with a new one, sourced from a local motor factor. The substitute speedometer's odometer had registered 79,002 miles, which I was able to re-set to 22,136 miles without much difficulty.

About 1¾ years later, this Smiths speedometer also failed, for reasons I cannot recall, but on this occasion the speedometer's flexible drive-cable was undamaged. Once again, from a local car breaker's yard, I salvaged another identical Smiths speedometer, which I fitted to my Toledo on 3rd September 1983. The second substitute speedometer's odometer had registered 89,052 miles, which I similarly re-set; this time to 34,783 miles (estimated to be the mileage the car had covered when the speedometer was replaced).

When I laid-up the Toledo in mid-1999, it had covered an indicated 101,204 miles (odometer reading of 01,204) without any problems, demonstrating that my third speedometer was probably more durable than both of its predecessors; having covered an indicated mileage of at least 155,473 [i.e. 89,052 + (101,204 - 34,783)]. However, having previously experienced two failed speedometers and a damaged flexible-drive cable, I recently took the opportunity to acquire a spare, early-model Toledo speedometer, when one came up for sale, for about £15.

Spare, second-hand early-model Toledo Smiths speedometer, for my British specification, 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300

Image

All four of the early-model Toledo speedometers (one AC & three Smiths) have been of the type illustrated above; having a large-numeral outer-scale calibrated in mph (i.e. 0~100 mph) for use at home in Great Britain and a small-numeral inner-scale calibrated in km/h (i.e. 0~160 km/h), for use when touring in overseas territories such a the Republic of Ireland and mainland Europe.

Long ago in 1975, I was intrigued by the illustration on Page 7 of my English-language, Triumph Toledo 1300 owners’ handbook, which showed a speedometer of similar appearance to mine, but instead whose large-numeral outer-scale is calibrated in km/h (i.e. 0~160 km/h) and small-numeral inner-scale is calibrated in mph (i.e. 0~100 mph).

At the time it seemed rather strange, but I have recently discovered that such a speedometer was used on the New Zealand specification, 1974 Triumph Toledo 1500; a low-mileage (or more precisely, low-kilometerage), long-term-stored example of which, is currently for sale in New Zealand (where English is the official language and speed limits have long been specified in km/h), priced at NZ$ 7,500 (approximately £3,925 @ the 8th August 2018 currency-exchange rate of NZ$ 1 = £0•523318).

https://www.trademe.co.nz/motors/used-c ... 1a36e373e9

New Zealand specification, 1974 Triumph Toledo 1500's Smith's speedometer

Image

_________________
Regards.

Nigel A. Skeet

Independent tutor of mathematics, physics, technology & engineering, for secondary, tertiary, further & higher education.

https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=308177758

Upgraded 1974 Triumph Toledo 1300 (Toledo / Dolomite HL / Sprint hybrid)

Onetime member + magazine editor & technical editor of Volkswagen Type 2 Owners' Club


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