But all those systems are horrendously inefficient, nowhere near as good as charging a battery.
And we are all saying where is the electricity coming from to charge cars (and replace our gas boilers at home with electric heating) so we need a massive amount of RELIABLE/CONSISTENT/PREDICTABLE renewable energy to achieve that, which we just don't have at the moment. That is the challenge
We also need a massive supply of "rare earth" minerals, mined responsibly, to make batteries, which we are never going to have (the clue is in the name, "rare earth") and better methods of recycling said batteries when they are life expired!
Like I said, with all these problems and challenges, battery electric is NOT a long term solution to our problems with currently available tech. Something that governments (which historically DON'T contain engineers, they have more sense) just don't understand! They say "you MUST do THIS" as if wishing will make it so, without any regard for just how us poor engineers are going to actually DO it!
There is another fly in the ointment attached to battery electric that no-one has mentioned yet, that being aviation!
Compared to aircraft, cars are like a breath of spring air in pollution terms. Just a fortnight of no jet airliners has cleaned the upper atmosphere beyond recognition, we NEED a substitute power source for aircraft or stop flying, batteries CAN'T and WON'T ever do that, Hydrogen at least offers a possibility.